References

This is the comprehensive reference page for all chapters of the Fundamentals of Environmental Measurements website. Please see the individual pages for more information.

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  • Daniel Kelly
  • Christine Kemker
  • Katie Fitch
  • Alex Card

 

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Hydrology References


Sediment Transport and Deposition

Water Quality References


Algae, Phytoplankton and Chlorophyll
Conductivity, Salinity, and TDS
Dissolved Oxygen
pH
Solar Radiation and PAR
Turbidity, TSS and Clarity
Water Temperature

Weather and Atmosphere References

Solar Radiation and PAR

Methods and Equipment References

Measuring Dissolved Oxygen
Measuring Turbidity, TSS and Water Clarity

Sediment Transport and Deposition References

1. Wetzel, R. G. (2001). Limnology: Lake and River Ecosystems (3rd ed.). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

2. Gray, J. R., Gylsson, G. D., Turcios, L. M., & Schwarz, G. E. (2000, August). Comparability of Suspended-Sediment Concentration and Total Suspended Solids Data. USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4191. Reston, VA: U S Geological Survey.

3. Langland, M., & Cronin, T. (Eds.). (2003). A Summary Report of Sediment Processes in Chesapeake Bay and Watershed. In Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4123. New Cumberland, PA: U S Geological Survey. Retrieved from http://pa.water.usgs.gov/reports/wrir03-4123.pdf

4. EPA. (2014, February). Sediments. In Water: Pollution Prevention & Control. Retrieved from http://water.epa.gov/polwaste/sediments/

5. Osmond, D.L., D.E. Line, J.A. Gale, R.W. Gannon, C.B. Knott, K.A. Bartenhagen, M.H. Turner, S.W. Coffey, J. Spooner, J. Wells, J.C. Walker, L.L. Hargrove, M.A. Foster, P.D. Robillard, and D.W. Lehning. (1995). Turbidity. In WATERSHEDSS: Water, Soil and Hydro-Environmental Decision Support System, http://h2osparc.wq.ncsu.edu. Retrieved from http://www.water.ncsu.edu/watershedss/info/turbid.html

6. Perlman, H. (2014, March). Sediment and Suspended Sediment. In The USGS Water Science School. Retrieved from http://water.usgs.gov/edu/sediment.html

7. Gao, Q. (2006, November). Correlation of Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) Test Methods . In New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Division of Science, Research, and Technology . Retrieved from http://www.state.nj.us/dep/dsr/soils/tss%20vs%20ssc%20test%20methods.pdf

8. EPA. (2012, March). What are Suspended and Bedded Sediments (SABS)?. In Water: WARSSS. Retrieved from http://water.epa.gov/scitech/datait/tools/warsss/sabs.cfm

9. EPA. (2012, March). Channel Processes: Suspended Sediment Transport. In Water: Science & Technology. Retrieved from http://water.epa.gov/scitech/datait/tools/warsss/suspend.cfm

10. Czuba, J. A., Magirl, C. S., Czuba, C. R., Grossman, E. E., Curran, C. A., Gendaszek, A. S., & Dinicola, R. S. (2011, August). Comparability of Suspended-Sediment Concentration and Total Suspended Solids DataSediment Load from Major Rivers into Puget Sound and its Adjacent Waters. USGS Fact Sheet 2011–3083. Tacoma, WA: U S Geological Survey.

11. Southard, J. (2006, Fall). 12.090 Introduction to Fluid Motions, Sediment Transport, and Current-Generated Sedimentary Structures, Course Textbook. In MIT Open Courseware: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved from http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/earth-atmospheric-and-planetary-sciences/12-090-introduction-to-fluid-motions-sediment-transport-and-current-generated-sedimentary-structures-fall-2006

12. EPA. (2012, March). Channel Processes: Bedload Transport. In Water: Science & Technology. Retrieved from http://water.epa.gov/scitech/datait/tools/warsss/bedload.cfm

13. Hickin, E. J. (Ed.). (1995). River Geomorphology. Chichester: Wiley.

14. Fink, J. C. (2005, August). CHAPTER 4 – ESTABLISHING A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SEDIMENT CONCENTRATIONS AND TURBIDITY . In The Effects of Urbanization on Baird Creek, Green Bay, WI (Thesis). Retrieved from http://www.uwgb.edu/watershed/fink/Fink_Thesis_Chap4.pdf

15. Hakanson, L. (2005). The relationship between salinity, suspended particulate matter and water clarity in aquatic systems. In The Ecological Society of Japan. Retrieved from http://www.met.uu.se/miljoanalys/pdf/sal_spm_secchi.pdf

16. MDDNR. (n.d.). A Brief Explanation of the Data Available for Viewing. In Eyes on the Bay – Welcome. Retrieved from http://mddnr.chesapeakebay.net/eyesonthebay/whatsitmean.cfm

17.Oberrecht, K. (n.d.). Sediment Transport and Deposition . In Department of State Lands: South Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve. Retrieved from http://www.oregon.gov/dsl/SSNERR/docs/EFS/EFS32sediment.pdf

18. McNally, W. H., & Mehta, A. J. (2004, June). Sediment Transport and Deposition in Estuaries (Sample Chapter). In Encyclopedia of Life Support Systesm (EOLSS): Coastal Zones and Estuaries. Retrieved from http://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c09/E2-06-01-04.pdf

19. Griffiths, P. G., Hereford, R., & Webb, R. H. (2006, January). Sediment yield and runoff frequency of small drainage basins in the Mojave Desert, California and Nevada. USGS Fact Sheet: Recoverability and Vulnerability of Desert Ecosystems.

20. National Geographic Society. (n.d.). Encyclopedic Entry: Sediment. In National Geographic: Education. Retrieved from http://education.nationalgeographic.com/education/encyclopedia/sediment/?ar_a=1

21. Rocks: Igneous, Metamorphic and Sedimentary. (n.d.). In Geology.com. Retrieved from http://geology.com/rocks/

22. Geomorphlist (Ed.). (2007, April). Is Geomorphology within Geography or Geology?. In The Association of Polish Geomorphologists. Retrieved from http://www.staff.amu.edu.pl/~sgp/gw/gggeo/gggeo.html

23. Furukawa, K., Wolanski, E., & Mueller, H. (1996). Currents and Sediment Transport in Mangrove Forests. Mangroves and Salt Marshes, 1(1). SPB Academic Publishing bv, Amsterdam.

24. Kuring, N., & Riebeek, H. (2009, April). Sediment in the Gulf of Mexico. In NASA Earth Observatory. Retrieved from http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=38273

25., The University of Arizona. (2009). HWR203 Arizona Water Issues (PowerPoint). In SAHRA. Retrieved from http://web.sahra.arizona.edu/education2/azwater/docs/lesson9/Hwr203FlowCalcs_ho.pdf

26. Missouri DNR. (2009, January). Chapter 3: Stream Discharge. In Introductory Level Volunteer Water Quality Monitoring T raining Notebook. Retrieved from http://www.dnr.mo.gov/env/wpp/vmqmp/level1-ch3.pdf

27. Crone, T. (2004, November). The Basic Sediment Transport Equations Made Ridiculously Simple. In OCEAN/ESS 410 Marine Geology and Geophysics. Retrieved from http://www.ocean.washington.edu/courses/oc410/reading/sedtrans_2004.pdf

28. Benson, T. (2014, June). Reynolds Number. In NASA Glenn Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/BGH/reynolds.html

29. Pattillo, C. (1994). Determining the Settling Velocity. In Intro to Biochemical Engineering Term Project. Retrieved from http://www.rpi.edu/dept/chem-eng/Biotech-Environ/SEDIMENT/sedsettle.html

30. Whipple, K. (2002). Factors Influencing Hydraulic Roughness. In Surface Processes and Landforms. Retrieved from http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/earth-atmospheric-and-planetary-sciences/12-163-surface-processes-and-landscape-evolution-fall-2004/labs/roughnes_handout.pdf

31. Wilcock, P., Pitlick, J., & Cui, Y. (2009, May). Sediment Transport Primer: Estimating Bed-Material Transport in Gravel-bed Rivers. General Technical Report. Fort Collins, CO. U S Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.

32. U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy, . (2004). Chapter 12: Managing Sediment and Shorelines. An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century: Final Report. Retrieved from http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/oceancommission/documents/full_color_rpt/12_chapter12.pdf

33. Washington State Department of Ecology. (1991). Chapter 2 – Lakes: Total Suspended Solids and Turbidity in Lakes. In A Citizen’s Guide to Understanding and Monitoring Lakes and Streams. Retrieved from http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/plants/management/joysmanual/turbidity.html

34. Murphy, S. (2007, April). General Information on Solids. In City of Boulder: USGS Water Quality Monitoring. Retrieved from http://bcn.boulder.co.us/basin/data/NEW/info/TSS.html

35. Zaimes, G., & Emanuel, R. (2006). Stream Processes Part I: Basics. Arizona Watershed Stewardship Guide, Master Watershed Steward. Retrieved from https://cals.arizona.edu/watershedsteward/resources/docs/stream_processes.pdf

36. ADEM Water Quality Branch. (2013, August). TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOAD (TMDL) for Siltation and Habitat Alteration in the Upper Cahaba River Watershed. Alabama Department of Environmental Management: HUC 03150202.

37. MDEQ. (n.d.). Total Suspended Solids. In Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. Retrieved from http://www.michigan.gov/documents/deq/wb-npdes-TotalSuspendedSolids_247238_7.pdf

38. Chesapeake Bay Program. (2012). Water Clarity. In The Bay Ecosystem. Retrieved from https://www.chesapeakebay.net/discover/bayecosystem/waterclarity

39. EPA, NOAA, USACE, & USFWS. (2005, December). Contaminated Sediment Remediation Guidance for Hazardous Waste Sites. United States Environmental Protection Agency: Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, EPA-540-R-05-012.

40. Palermo, M. R., Schroeder, P. R., Estes, T. J., & Francingues, N. R. (2008, September). Technical Guidelines for Environmental Dredging of Contaminated Sediments. US Army Corps of Engineers: Engineer Research and Development Center, ERDC/EL TR-08-29.

41. Lagasse, P. F., Zevenbergen, L. W., Spitz, W. J., & Arneson, L. A. (2012, April). Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 20: Stream Stability at Highway Structures (Fourth ed.). US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

42. Arneson, L. A., Zevenbergen, L. W., Lagasse, P. F., & Clopper, P. E. (2012, April). Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18: Evaluating Scour at Bridges (Fifth ed.). US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

Algae, Phytoplankton and Chlorophyll References

1. Wetzel, R. G. (2001). Limnology: Lake and River Ecosystems (3rd ed.). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

2. NOAA. (2014, August). Harmful Algal Blooms. In National Ocean Service. Retrieved from http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/hazards/hab/

3. Department of Wildlife & Fisheries Sciences. (2014). Plant Identification. In AquaPlant: A Pond Manager Diagnostics Tools. Retrieved from http://aquaplant.tamu.edu/plant-identification/

4. Guiry, M. (2014). What are algae?. In The Seaweed Site: information on marine algae. Retrieved from http://www.seaweed.ie/algae/algae.php

5. National Taiwan Museum. (2006). What are Seaweeds? Introduction. In Morphology and Taxonomy. Retrieved from http://formosa.ntm.gov.tw/seaweeds/english/b/b1_01.asp

6. Guiry, M. D. (2014). Taxonomy Browser. In Algaebase. Retrieved from http://www.algaebase.org/browse/taxonomy/?id=86701

7. Washington State Department of Ecology. (2013). General Algae Information. In Freshwater Algae Control Program. Retrieved from http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/plants/algae/lakes/algaeinformation.html

8. Chu, A. (2003). Prionitis lanceolata. In Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute: Marine Botany. Retrieved from http://www.mbari.org/staff/conn/botany/reds/Aliceweb/taxonomy.html

9. Protist Kingdom. (n.d.). In Council Rock School District. Retrieved from http://www.crsd.org/cms/lib5/PA01000188/Centricity/Domain/344/protist.ppt

10. WHOI. (2014). Phytoplankton. In Ocean Life. Retrieved from http://www.whoi.edu/main/topic/phytoplankton

11. Lindsey, R., & Scott, M. (2010, July). What are Phytoplankton?. In NASA Earth Observatory. Retrieved from http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Phytoplankton/

12. NOAA. (2014, April). What are Phytoplankton?. In National Ocean Service. Retrieved from http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/phyto.html

13. Zimmerman, L. (n.d.). Phytoplankton. In Biological Resources. Retrieved from http://nerrs.noaa.gov/doc/siteprofile/acebasin/html/biores/phyto/pytext.htm

14. Todar, K. (2012). Diversity of Metabolism in Procaryotes. In Online Textbook of Bacteriology. Retrieved from http://textbookofbacteriology.net/metabolism_6.html

15. Speer, B. R. (1997). Photosynthetic Pigments. In Glossary. Retrieved from http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss3/pigments.html

16. Walsh, J. C. (n.d.). The Colonial Algae. In Micrographia. Retrieved from http://www.micrographia.com/specbiol/alg/colo/colo0100.htm

17. MarineBio Conservation Society. (2014). Forests of the Sea: Phytoplankton and Marine plants. In MarineBio. Retrieved from http://marinebio.org/oceans/forests/

18. University of Kentucky. (2013). Custom Edition Karp: Cell and Molecular Biology 7E. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

19. Delwiche, C. F. (1998). Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria: Proteobacteria. In Photosynthetic Life (Lecture). Retrieved from http://www.life.umd.edu/labs/delwiche/PSlife/lectures/Proteo.html

20. May, P. (n.d.). Chlorophyll. In School of Chemistry. Retrieved from http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/chlorophyll/chlorophyll_h.htm

21. Klekowski, E. (1997). Chlorophylls a and b. In The Connecticut River. Retrieved from http://www.bio.umass.edu/biology/conn.river/chlorophyll.html

22. Callaway, E. (2010, August). A new kind of chlorophyll – and it only took 67 years to find. Nature. Retrieved from http://blogs.nature.com/news/2010/08/a_new_kind_of_chlorophyll_and.html

23. Nave, R. (2008). Pigments for Photosynthesis. In HyperPhysics. Retrieved from http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/pigpho.html

24. 8. Watt, M. K. (2000). A Hydrologic Primer for New Jersey Watershed Management (Water-Resources Investigation Report 00-4140). West Trenton, NJ: U.S. Geological Survey.

25. NOAA. (2013). Ocean Facts. In National Ocean Service. Retrieved from http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/light_travel.html

26. Barber, B. (2014, April). The Effect of Temperature on the Rate of Photosynthesis. In eHow. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/about_5459160_effect-temperature-rate-photosynthesis.html

27. Allen, J. (2001, September). Ultraviolet Radiation: How it Affects Life on Earth. In NASA Earth Observatory. Retrieved from http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/UVB/

28. Schmidt, L. J. (2000, August). Polynyas, CO2, and Diatoms in the Southern Ocean. In NASA Earth Observatory. Retrieved from http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Polynyas/

29. Jason Education Project at Texas A&M University. (2005, January). Marine Food Web. In Ocean World: Forams. Retrieved from http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/students/forams/forams_marine_food_web.htm

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31. Sarfi, M. (n.d.). The Changing earth and Cyanobacteria; The Oxygen Revolution . In Dr. Ken Hooper Virtual Natural History Museum . Retrieved from http://hoopermuseum.earthsci.carleton.ca/stromatolites/OXYGEN.htm

32. American Public Health Assoc., American Water Works Assoc. & Water Environment Federation. (1999). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (20th ed.). Baltimore, MD: American Public Health Association.

33. UCSD, Calspace. (2002). The Biological Carbon Pump. In Climate Change: Earth’s Climate System. Retrieved from http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/virtualmuseum/climatechange1/06_2.shtml

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35. Helbling, E. W., Villafane, V., & Holm-Hansen, O. (1994). Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on Antarctic Marine Phytoplankton Photosynthesis with Particular Attention to the Influence of Mixing. In Ultraviolet Radiation in Antarctica: Measurements and Biological Effects. Antarctic Research Series, 62.

36. Collins, J. (2010). Red Tide and Shellfish Poisoning. In UWC Enviro Facts . Retrieved from http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/envfacts/redtides/

37. Stewart, R. (2005). Distribution of Plankton. In Oceanography in the 21st Century – An Online Textbook. Retrieved from http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/resources/oceanography-book/phytoplanktondistribution.htm

38. NSIDC. (2013). All About Sea Ice. In National Snow & Ice Data Center. Retrieved from http://nsidc.org/cryosphere/seaice/index.html

39. Washington State Department of Ecology. (2013). What are Blue-Green Algae (Cyanobacteria)?. In Algae Control Program. Retrieved from http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wq/plants/algae/publichealth/generalcyanobacteria.html

40. Havens, K. (2013, January). Sampling. In Plankton Web. Retrieved from http://www.sfrc.ufl.edu/planktonweb/sampling.htm

41. Schulz, K. (2007, April). Phytoplankton Measuring and Culture Techniques. In Phytoplankton Ecology (Lecture). Retrieved from http://www.esf.edu/efb/schulz/phytotechniques.doc

42. NHDES. (n.d.) . Description of River Water Quality Parameters. In Department of Environmental Services. Retrieved from http://des.nh.gov/organization/divisions/water/wmb/vrap/documents/wq-resultsinfo.pdf

43. FWRI. (2014). Red Tide FAQ. In Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. Retrieved from http://myfwc.com/research/redtide/faq/

44. Sallenave, R. (2011, October). Managing Filamentous Algae in Ponds. In New Mexico State University Water Publications. Retrieved from http://aces.nmsu.edu/pubs/_w/w-103/welcome.html

45. Michigan DNR. (2014). Fish Kills. In Managing Michigan’s Fisheries. Retrieved from http://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,4570,7-153-10364_52259-119822–,00.html

46. GLERL. (2014). Frequently Asked Questions: Harmful Algal Blooms. In NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory. Retrieved from http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/res/waterQuality/?targetTab=faq

47. YSI Incorporated. (n.d.). The Basics of Chlorophyll Measurement. In YSI Environmental Tech Note. Retrieved from http://www.ysi.com/media/pdfs/T606-The-Basics-of-Chlorophyll-Measurement.pdf

48. Cocks, M. (n.d.). The spectrum and photosynthesis. In Light and Air. Retrieved from http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/ecotree/photosynthesis/spectrum.htm#middle

49. YSI Incorporated. (2006). YSI 6131 and 6132 Blue-Green Algae Sensors: Phycocyanin and Phycoerythrin Sensors. In YSI Sensor Brochure. Retrieved from http://www.fondriest.com/pdf/ysi_6131_6132_spec.pdf

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52. Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. (n.d.). 5.1.5 Aquatic biotoxins (Hans Henrik Huss). In FAO Corporate Document Repository: Assessment and Management of Seafood Safety and Quality. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y4743e/y4743e0d.htm

Conductivity, Salinity, and Total Dissolved Solids References

1. EPA. (2012). 5.9 Conductivity. In Water: Monitoring and Assessment. Retrieved from http://water.epa.gov/type/rsl/monitoring/vms59.cfm

2. Perlman, H. (2014). Electrical Conductivity and Water. In The USGS Water Science School. Retrieved from http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/electrical-conductivity.html

3. Miller, R. L., Bradford, W. L., & Peters, N. E. (1988). Specific Conductance: Theoretical Considerations and Application to Analytical Quality Control. In U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper. Retrieved from http://pubs.usgs.gov/wsp/2311/report.pdf

4. Wetzel, R. G. (2001). Limnology: Lake and River Ecosystems (3rd ed.). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

5. Elert, G., & Tetruashvili, S. (2006). Resistivity of Water. In The Physics Factbook. Retrieved from http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2006/SamTetruashvili.shtml

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8. Webster, I., Atkinson, I., & Radke, L. (2013). Salinity. In Oz Coasts. Retrieved from http://www.ozcoasts.gov.au/indicators/salinity.jsp

9. Todd, S. K. (2004). The physics of seawater (powerpoint). In Physical Oceanography 1. Retrieved from http://www.coa.edu/stodd/oceanweb/oceanography/Oceanlectures02/Lecture2/index.htm

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12. Thompson, K., AWWA Research Foundation, WateReuse Foundation, & Water Quality Association. (2006).Characterizing and Managing Salinity Loadings in Reclaimed Water Systems. N.p.: American Water Works Association.

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15. Ayres, M. (n.d.). Second College Grant Natural History Primer. In Physiological Ecology, Bio 31. Retrieved from http://www.dartmouth.edu/~bio31/SCG.NaturalHistory.pdf

16. Agro, J. (1996, November). Do Fish Drink Water?. In MadSci Network: Zoology. Retrieved from http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/1996-12/847855291.Zo.r.html

17. Perlman, H. (2014, March). Why is the Ocean Salty?. In USGS Water Science School. Retrieved from http://water.usgs.gov/edu/whyoceansalty.html

18. Nave, R. (1998). Resistance and Resistivity. In Hyperphysics. Retrieved from http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/resis.html#c1

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20. Ponce, V. M. (2014). Total dissolved solids (TDS) based on electrical conductivity (EC). In Online Salinity Calculator. Retrieved from http://ponce.sdsu.edu/onlinesalinity.php

21. Virginia Institute of Marine Science. (2005). Physical Characteristics: Salinity. In Shallow Water Habitats. Retrieved from http://web.vims.edu/bio/shallowwater/physical_characteristics/salinity.html

22. NSIDC. (2013). All About Sea Ice. In National Snow & Ice Data Center. Retrieved from http://nsidc.org/cryosphere/seaice/index.html

23. Perlman, H. (2014, April). Water Properties and Measurements. In USGS Water Science School. Retrieved from http://water.usgs.gov/edu/characteristics.html

24. Pawlowicz, R. (2013, April). TEOS-10 Primer; What every oceanographer needs to know about TEOS-10. In Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010. Retrieved from http://www.teos-10.org/pubs/TEOS-10_Primer.pdf

25. Sommer, K., & Spitzer, P. (2004, April). Session H: Ocean Salinity (Powerpoint). In Plenary lecture: WMO-BIPM WS Geneva 30 March-1 April. Retrieved from http://www.bipm.org/ws/BIPM/WMO-BIPM/Allowed/Plenary_lectures/04.04-Session_H-Intro-Sommer.pdf

26. Stewart, R. H. (2004, July). 6.1 Definition of Salinity. In Chapter 6 – Temperature, Salinity, and Density. Retrieved from http://oceanworld.tamu.edu/resources/ocng_textbook/chapter06/chapter06_01.htm

27. Office of Naval Research. (n.d.). Ocean Water: Salinity. In Science & Technology Focus. Retrieved from http://www.onr.navy.mil/focus/ocean/water/salinity1.htm

28. Beer, T. (1997). Environmental Oceanography (2nd ed.). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc.

29. South Carolina Oyster Restoration and Enhancement. (n.d.). Understanding Salinity. In SCORE Water-Quality Tutorial. Retrieved from http://score.dnr.sc.gov/ktmlpro10/files/uploads/elearning/Understanding_Salinity.pdf

30. University of Virginia Physics Department . (2003). Temperature Effects on Solubility. Retrieved from http://galileo.phys.virginia.edu/education/outreach/8thgradesol/TempSolubility.htm

31. Netting, R. (2013, May). Salinity. In NASA Science: Earth. Retrieved from http://science.nasa.gov/earth-science/oceanography/physical-ocean/salinity/

32. YSI Incorporated. (2011). Pro30 User Manual. Retrieved from http://www.fondriest.com/ysi-pro30.htm

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