ATI's Model Q46F/D Direct Fluoride Monitor provides continuous measurement of free fluoride concentration in potable water without sample conditioning.
Many drinking water systems add fluoride to their water to help their residents prevent tooth decay. To achieve a fluoride concentration of about 1 PPM, a hydrofluorosilicic acid or sodium fluoride solution is metered into the process at a rate that is proportional to total plant flow. However, flow control problems may result in a loss of chemical feed or over-feed condition. An on-line fluoride monitor can provide reliable control of chemical addition for a consistent fluoride concentration.
ATI’s Model Q46F/D Fluoride Monitor provides continuous measurement of free fluoride concentration in potable water without sample conditioning. The system employs a fluoride sensitive ion selective electrode (ISE) which provides reliable measurements down to 0.1 PPM and as high as 1000 PPM. The system is designed for use in applications where the pH and conductivity of the water are relatively stable. Fluoride measurement applications with widely varying sample conditions may require a more sophisticated system employing automated sample conditioning such as ATI’s Q46F-AutoChem system.
Fluoride monitoring systems are easy to install, requiring a ¼” O.D. sample tube connected to a special flowcell provided as part of the system. Inlet flow must be regulated to 6 GPH (0.4 LPM) or less and should be stable. As an option, ATI can supply the fluoride monitoring system factory mounted on a panel containing all necessary flow controls and a visual flow indicator.
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Unique among the 29 National Estuarine Research Reserves (NERRS), Narragansett Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NBNERR ) is made up of four islands: Prudence, Patience, Hope and Dyer. Protecting about 4,400 acres of land and water, NBNERR is a great place to see a variety of coastal habitats. There are upland maritime forests, coastal pine barrens, sandy beaches, cobble shorelines, salt marshes and open grasslands. NBNERR also has excellent hiking, fishing, clamming and bird watching. “If you want to see us, though, you’ll need to hop on a ferry,” says Bob Stankelis , NBNERR Reserve Manager. “Or you’ll have to take a boat. We’re not that easy to get to. But to be honest, that’s one of the big things residents here like about it: its remoteness.Read More
Since the 1980s, scientists from the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation (VT DEC) have been sampling water from acid-impaired ponds and lakes and tracking data related to acidity. The line of inquiry began in response to concerns about acid rain, but DEC scientists now find that the long-term monitoring is not only proving the efficacy of the Clean Air Act but also improving local water quality.
Guarding the environment in Vermont
Rebecca Harvey is a VT DEC scientist, and monitoring the state's waterways for acidity and other problems falls in part to her. Dr. Harvey corresponded with EM about this work.Read More
In the ongoing quest for better wastewater treatment, a team of researchers from the University of California, Riverside (UCR) have developed a technique to improve the way Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) remove pollutants from wastewater dramatically. AOPs remove organic materials from water using oxidation.
These AOP reactions take place when hydrogen peroxide, a powerful oxidizing agent, decomposes, leaving hydroxyl radicals along with oxygen and water behind. This makes the processes appealing, but until now they've required both a long period of time and large amounts of both hydrogen peroxide and ferrous salt (Fe2+, a divalent iron ion). The Fe2+ acts like a catalyst, but also produces a secondary pollutant in the form of an iron-containing sludge.Read More